Observing the Sky in July 2011

 
 NASA Photo
This month:
 
There is a partial solar eclipse visible only from the ocean south-east of Africa. It is not visible from anywhere in North America.
 

Moon Phases

New 7/1 & 7/30
First Quarter 7/8
Full 7/15
Last 7/23

July has two new moons.  As infrequent as two full moons in a month, popularly known as a “blue moon,” the two-new-moon month has no official astronomical name.  The “blue moon” designation has no official astronomical name, but somewhat goes along with the “once in a blue moon” phrase.  Additionally, sometimes after volcanic eruptions, ash in the atmosphere gives the moon a bluish cast.  Since these eruptions are infrequent, the blue moon color effect related to these events is also very infrequent.  The second new moon in a month is sometimes called a “black moon” in some circles — though again this event has no official name.

 

Look for the Moon and elusive Mercury after sunset early in the month. This diagram and other B&W Diagrams from Sky Calendar. Used with permission.

 Early in the month, Mercury appears in the western sky during evening twilight.  This planet is difficult to see and it never appears in a dark sky.  As with the clustering of the planets in the morning sky in May, use binoculars to view the planet.  At around 9 p.m. in the Chicago area, locate a viewing spot with a good western horizon.  On Saturday, the moon appears to the lower left of Mercury appearing the West-NorthWest sky.   On Sunday, July 3, the moon appears at about the same altitude as Mercury but farther to the left.
 
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 As the moon approaches First Quarter, it appears near the star Spica and the planet Saturn.  Distinctly yellow, Saturn’s rings can be seen through a small telescope.  Close inspection will reveal shadows of the rings on the planet’s cloud tops and Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, in the same plane of the rings.   The chart above shows the waxing moon, Spica, and Saturn on July 7.
 
July 12, Happy Birthday Neptune!  The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada has declared this date as the anniversary of the discovery of Neptune based on Neptune’s orbit.  The planet was first observed on the night of September 23/24, 1846.  The planet takes nearly 165 earth-years to orbit the sun.  On July 12, the planet completes one solar orbit, and one Neptunian year since its first observation from Earth; that’s 6+ human generations!  So let’s go with RASC’s declaration!  Happy Discovery, Neptune! 
 
July 20, a special date1969 — Apollo 11 moon landing.  1976 — Viking 1 martian landing.
 

On July 24, the moon appears near Jupiter during early morning hours.

 
As the moon moves past its full phase and into its waxing phases, it passes Jupiter on  the mornings of July 23 and July 24.  Look for the moon near the Pleiades on the Morning of July 25.
 
 
 
 As the moon moves toward the new phase, it appears near Mars on the predawn hours of July 27.  A thin crescent moon appears to the upper right of a distinctly red-orange Mars.
 
Report here on what you are seeing in the sky in our comments section.  The section is there for questions so that we can include answers in future postings.
 
Happy Viewing!

Moon and Planets, June 2011

Image Credit

June 2011 Moon Phases

New                            June 1
First Quarter            June 8
Full Moon                  June 15
Last Quarter            June 23

The month of maximum sunlight opens with three bright planets in the predawn sky and Saturn in the evening sky.  The amount of sunlight is consistent throughout the month, only gaining about 15 minutes of daylight from June 1 through the solstice on June 21.  The maximum amount of daylight is 15 hours, 15 minutes in the Chicago area.

The chart below shows the predawn sky on June 2 at 4:30 a.m. in Chicago.  Bright Venus is near the east-northeastern horizon with Mars to the upper right.  Higher in the eastern sky is Jupiter.  Quickly moving Mercury has disappeared into the sun’s glow, moving directly behind the sun (superior conjunction) on June 13.  It appears low in the west-northwest at month’s end.

Venus, Mars, and Jupiter 4:30 am CDT in Chicago. Diagrams from Sky Calendar. Used with Permission.

 

On the evening of June 2, look for the thin crescent of a new moon in the western sky.   At 8:50 p.m., less than 29 hours after the new moon (in the Chicago area), look low in the west-northwest to see this young moon.  You’ll need a good view of the natural horizon.  While the photograph at the top of this posting is tilted at a different angle, the thin crescent represents the view.  Additionally, during the next few nights, as the moon’s crescent grows and it appears in a slightly darker sky, the moon’s night portion will gently glow.  While the moon is just past the new phase, from the moon, Earth is just past the full phase.  Just as when the bright full moon, casts shadows and illuminates the terrestrial landscape, the nearly full Earth does the same to the lunar landscape.  Look for this “Earthshine” on the moon during early June.

Look for a thin crescent moon on the evening of June 2.

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 As the moon moves through its celestial orbit and its phases, it will appear in the direction of Saturn on June 9 and June 10.  Through a telescope, Saturn’s rings are tilted slightly.  Saturn appears near the star Gamma Virginis, which itself a double star — two stars held together in a gravitational embrace, throughout the month.

The moon moves near Saturn in early June.

Back in the morning sky, Jupiter rapidly moves higher, rising noticably early each week.  By solstice day, Jupiter, Mars, and the Pleiades appear in the eastern predawn sky.  As noted in the Sky Calendar panel for this date, the next visible grouping of Mars and the star cluster is in 2017.

 
For those who tracked the planetary grouping in May with binoculars, another interesting pairing occurs in bright twilight on June 30.  At 4:50 a.m. in the Chicago area, with binoculars look for a thin crescent moon and Venus near the east, northeast horizon.

Venus and Moon during bright early morning twilight on June 30.

With maximum daylight during June, the planetary display continues in the predawn sky.  The golden jewel of the solar system, appears in the southern sky during the evening hours of the month.

Moon and Planets, May 2011

Moon Phases

Moon
NASA Photo

A clustering of planets in early morning twilight. From Abrams Planetarium Sky Calendar All similar diagrams (c) Abrams Planetarium,  2011. Used with Permission. Key for these diagrams: Me, Mercury; Ve, Venus; Ma, Mars; Ju, Jupiter. 

The charts above show the planets on May 1 and May 2 at around 5:20 a.m. CDT in Chicago.  On May 1, a thin crescent moon appears to the left of Venus.  With binoculars or telescope locate Mars and Jupiter beneath it.  The next morning, the moon is much lower, although the planets are visible again low in the eastern sky. This clustering of the planets is from a seemingly complex motion of the four planets and Earth.

Mercury is the fastest planet, revolving around the sun in 88 days, although it catches up to Earth and passes our planet every 115 days.  That’s three times every year.

Venus revolves through its solar orbit every 224 days, but it takes 584 days (1 year, 7 months) to catch our moving planet.

Mars revolves around the sun slower than Earth, taking 1 year, 292 days for one solar revolution.  Our planet catches Mars every 2 years, 51 days.

The fourth planet moves slowest.  At its distance from the sun, Jupiter takes nearly 12 years to revolve around the sun and our faster moving planet catches up to and passes Jupiter in one year, one month intervals.

On April 9 Mercury passed between the earth and the sun and emerged into the morning sky. It climbed higher into the morning sky.  On May 7, it reaches its greatest separation (elongation) from the sun as seen by Earth.

Venus has been in the morning sky for several months and it is slowly disappearing in the sun’s glare as to moves behind the sun on August 16.  As the days and weeks, pass Venus appears lower in the sky until it disappears in the sun’s brilliant glare.

Mars appears to be emerging from behind the sun as our planet’s faster motion carries us around the sun faster.  The combination of speeds makes Mars appear to move more slowly than we might think.  This Red Planet moves at about half the speed of our planet so Mars appears to slowly move across the sky as compared to the other planets.  Mars was directly behind the sun on February 4 and has slowly emerged from the sun’s glare since then.

While Jupiter revolves more slowly than Mars, our planet catches it sooner than it catches Mars.  Its annual progression across our night sky is very similar to the stars.  After conjunction, it appears in the morning sky, rising earlier each week.  After several weeks, it rises around midnight.  Then it rises around sunset as Earth passes between Jupiter and the sun.  From that point it rises sooner each day.  Before you know it, it appears in west just after sunset, shortly thereafter disappearing in the sun’s brilliant glare only to repeat the cycle. However, there is one small difference, Jupiter’s slight orbital motion carries it slightly eastward as compared to the stars during this sequence.  So that in nearly 12 years, Jupiter has moved eastward on full circle in front of the stars behind the plane of the solar system, commonly known as the zodiac. As Mercury and Venus disappear into the sun’s glare after this display, Jupiter will rise rapidly in the morning sky when weekly observations are made.  In comparison, Mars will not appear to move much as its orbital motion is only half our planet’s speed.   For example, compare Jupiter’s position near the horizon in the May 1 diagram above and then again in the May 22 diagram below.

The chart below shows the relative position of the five planets and the sun on May 15, 2011, as viewed from north of the solar system.  From Earth, all the planets appear nearly in a line.  They are not easily observed because the line is near the brilliant sun.

The planets’ relative positions, May 8-11, 2011.

As the month progresses,  Jupiter appears higher in the sky, Mercury and Venus appear lower, and Mars appears nearly in the same place.

 
 
The bright planet grouping, May 22, 2011

 

While all the planet clustering occurs in the morning sky,  the moon appears near Saturn on the evenings of May 12-14.

With the changing weather patterns and increased daylight, May 2011 brings an interesting clustering of planets in the bright predawn skies.  Use binoculars or a telescope; be patient; and watch the changing display of planets.

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A note about the Abrams Planetarium Sky Calendar.  The publication is an excellent way to learn about the sky.  Written by expert sky watcher, Robert C. Victor, with an accompanying monthly sky map by D. David Batch, the Sky Calendar is written in calendar form that shows notable sky events that interested sky watchers can find.  Victor uses the moon to help locate bright stars and planets.  The calendar is published as a quarterly set, but subscriptions can start any time.  Send $11 to Sky Calendar, Abrams Planetarium, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824.

For purposes of full disclosure, this writer studied planetarium and astronomy education at Abrams Planetarium, and received a master’s degree in the subject from Michigan State University.   At the time, we graduate students were informally called “Abrams Interns.”  Graduates have served at planetariums and astronomy education organizations across the world.  Victor, Batch and other Abrams staff schooled us in how to connect with the public on observational astronomy.  If we former Interns were in another field, we would be praising our Abrams mentors in our resumes and our bios.  It was an honor to study with them and to see what they continue to do with constant commitment and devotion to their field of communicating astronomy to the public.

I received no compensation for this endorsement.  TheSky Calendar is a worthy publication that needs our support.  Subscribe today!